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Konrad Duden. The average class size increased from 37 in to 43 in due to the resulting teacher shortage. Frequent and often contradictory directives were issued by Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick, Bernhard Rust of the Reich Ministry of Science, Education and Culture , and other agencies regarding content of lessons and acceptable textbooks for use in primary and secondary schools.
Detailed National Socialist indoctrination of future holders of elite military rank was undertaken at Order Castles. Primary and secondary education focused on racial biology, population policy, culture, geography, and physical fitness.
At universities, appointments to top posts were the subject of power struggles between the education ministry, the university boards, and the National Socialist German Students' League.
Women were a cornerstone of Nazi social policy. The Nazis opposed the feminist movement, claiming that it was the creation of Jewish intellectuals, instead advocating a patriarchal society in which the German woman would recognise that her "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home".
Courses were offered on childrearing, sewing, and cooking. Women were encouraged to leave the workforce, and the creation of large families by racially suitable women was promoted through a propaganda campaign.
Women received a bronze award—known as the Ehrenkreuz der Deutschen Mutter Cross of Honour of the German Mother —for giving birth to four children, silver for six, and gold for eight or more.
Though the measures led to increases in the birth rate, the number of families having four or more children declined by five percent between and After the war started, slave labourers were extensively used.
Nazi leaders endorsed the idea that rational and theoretical work was alien to a woman's nature, and as such discouraged women from seeking higher education.
The number of women enrolled in post-secondary schools dropped from , in to 51, in However, with the requirement that men be enlisted into the armed forces during the war, women comprised half of the enrolment in the post-secondary system by Women were expected to be strong, healthy, and vital.
From 25 March membership in the Hitler Youth was made compulsory for all children over the age of ten. The BDM's activities focused on physical education, with activities such as running, long jumping, somersaulting, tightrope walking, marching, and swimming.
The Nazi regime promoted a liberal code of conduct regarding sexual matters and was sympathetic to women who bore children out of wedlock.
Soldier's wives were frequently involved in extramarital relationships. Sex was sometimes used as a commodity to obtain better work from a foreign labourer.
With Hitler's approval, Himmler intended that the new society of the Nazi regime should destigmatise illegitimate births, particularly of children fathered by members of the SS, who were vetted for racial purity.
Existing laws banning abortion except for medical reasons were strictly enforced by the Nazi regime. The number of abortions declined from 35, per year at the start of the s to fewer than 2, per year at the end of the decade, though in a law was passed allowing abortions for eugenics reasons.
Nazi Germany had a strong anti-tobacco movement , as pioneering research by Franz H. Müller in demonstrated a causal link between smoking and lung cancer.
Government-run health care insurance plans were available, but Jews were denied coverage starting in That same year, Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat government-insured patients.
In , Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat non-Jewish patients and in their right to practice medicine was removed entirely.
Medical experiments, many of them pseudoscientific , were performed on concentration camp inmates beginning in Josef Mengele , camp doctor at Auschwitz.
Nazi society had elements supportive of animal rights and many people were fond of zoos and wildlife. In , the Nazis enacted a stringent animal-protection law that affected what was allowed for medical research.
The Reich Forestry Office under Göring enforced regulations that required foresters to plant a variety of trees to ensure suitable habitat for wildlife, and a new Reich Animal Protection Act became law in It allowed for the expropriation of privately owned land to create nature preserves and aided in long-range planning.
When the Nazis seized power in , roughly 67 percent of the population of Germany was Protestant , 33 percent was Roman Catholic , while Jews made up less than 1 percent.
Under the Gleichschaltung process, Hitler attempted to create a unified Protestant Reich Church from Germany's 28 existing Protestant state churches ,  with the ultimate goal of eradication of the churches in Germany.
Persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany followed the Nazi takeover. Catholic schools were required to reduce religious instruction and crucifixes were removed from state buildings.
Pope Pius XI had the " Mit brennender Sorge " "With Burning Concern" encyclical smuggled into Germany for Passion Sunday and read from every pulpit as it denounced the systematic hostility of the regime toward the church.
Enrolment in denominational schools dropped sharply and by all such schools were disbanded or converted to public facilities.
Alfred Rosenberg , head of the Nazi Party Office of Foreign Affairs and Hitler's appointed cultural and educational leader for Nazi Germany, considered Catholicism to be among the Nazis' chief enemies.
He planned the "extermination of the foreign Christian faiths imported into Germany", and for the Bible and Christian cross to be replaced in all churches, cathedrals, and chapels with copies of Mein Kampf and the swastika.
Other sects of Christianity were also targeted, with Chief of the Nazi Party Chancellery Martin Bormann publicly proclaiming in , "National Socialism and Christianity are irreconcilable.
While no unified resistance movement opposing the Nazi regime existed, acts of defiance such as sabotage and labour slowdowns took place, as well as attempts to overthrow the regime or assassinate Hitler.
These networks achieved little beyond fomenting unrest and initiating short-lived strikes. The group was detected by the Gestapo and more than 50 members were tried and executed in The two groups saw themselves as potential rival parties in post-war Germany, and for the most part did not co-ordinate their activities.
While civilian efforts had an impact on public opinion, the army was the only organisation with the capacity to overthrow the government.
They believed Britain would go to war over Hitler's planned invasion of Czechoslovakia, and Germany would lose. The plan was to overthrow Hitler or possibly assassinate him.
The planned coup was cancelled after the signing of the Munich Agreement in September Several more attempts followed before the failed 20 July plot, which was at least partly motivated by the increasing prospect of a German defeat in the war.
Richard J. Evans , The Coming of the Third Reich The regime promoted the concept of Volksgemeinschaft , a national German ethnic community.
The goal was to build a classless society based on racial purity and the perceived need to prepare for warfare, conquest and a struggle against Marxism.
As well as taking control of tens of thousands of privately run recreational clubs, it offered highly regimented holidays and entertainment such as cruises, vacation destinations and concerts.
Sub-chambers were set up to control aspects of cultural life such as film, radio, newspapers, fine arts, music, theatre and literature.
Members of these professions were required to join their respective organisation. Jews and people considered politically unreliable were prevented from working in the arts, and many emigrated.
Books and scripts had to be approved by the Propaganda Ministry prior to publication. Standards deteriorated as the regime sought to use cultural outlets exclusively as propaganda media.
Radio became popular in Germany during the s; over 70 percent of households owned a receiver by , more than any other country. By July , radio station staffs were purged of leftists and others deemed undesirable.
Newspapers, like other media, were controlled by the state; the Reich Press Chamber shut down or bought newspapers and publishing houses.
By , over two-thirds of the newspapers and magazines were directly owned by the Propaganda Ministry. Under Goebbels, the Propaganda Ministry issued two dozen directives every week on exactly what news should be published and what angles to use; the typical newspaper followed the directives closely, especially regarding what to omit.
Authors of books left the country in droves and some wrote material critical of the regime while in exile. Goebbels recommended that the remaining authors concentrate on books themed on Germanic myths and the concept of blood and soil.
By the end of , over a thousand books—most of them by Jewish authors or featuring Jewish characters—had been banned by the Nazi regime. Pacifist works, and literature espousing liberal, democratic values were targeted for destruction, as well as any writings supporting the Weimar Republic or those written by Jewish authors.
Hitler took a personal interest in architecture and worked closely with state architects Paul Troost and Albert Speer to create public buildings in a neoclassical style based on Roman architecture.
Neither structure was built. Hitler's belief that abstract , Dadaist , expressionist and modern art were decadent became the basis for policy.
The exhibition proved wildly popular, attracting over two million visitors. Movies were popular in Germany in the s and s, with admissions of over a billion people in , and Exports of German films plummeted, as their antisemitic content made them impossible to show in other countries.
The two largest film companies, Universum Film AG and Tobis , were purchased by the Propaganda Ministry, which by was producing most German films.
The productions were not always overtly propagandistic, but generally had a political subtext and followed party lines regarding themes and content.
Scripts were pre-censored. Leni Riefenstahl 's Triumph of the Will —documenting the Nuremberg Rally—and Olympia —covering the Summer Olympics —pioneered techniques of camera movement and editing that influenced later films.
New techniques such as telephoto lenses and cameras mounted on tracks were employed. Both films remain controversial, as their aesthetic merit is inseparable from their propagandising of National Socialist ideals.
The Allied powers organised war crimes trials, beginning with the Nuremberg trials , held from November to October , of 23 top Nazi officials.
They were charged with four counts—conspiracy to commit crimes, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity —in violation of international laws governing warfare.
The result was convictions of 1, people; of these were sentenced to death and to life in prison, with the remainder receiving lesser sentences.
About 65 percent of the death sentences were carried out. The political programme espoused by Hitler and the Nazis brought about a world war, leaving behind a devastated and impoverished Europe.
Germany itself suffered wholesale destruction, characterised as Stunde Null Zero Hour. While Evans remarks that the era "exerts an almost universal appeal because its murderous racism stands as a warning to the whole of humanity",  young neo-Nazis enjoy the shock value the use Nazi symbols or slogans provides.
The process of denazification, which was initiated by the Allies as a way to remove Nazi Party members was only partially successful, as the need for experts in such fields as medicine and engineering was too great.
However, expression of Nazi views was frowned upon, and those who expressed such views were frequently dismissed from their jobs.
While virtually every family suffered losses during the war has a story to tell, Germans kept quiet about their experiences and felt a sense of communal guilt, even if they were not directly involved in war crimes.
The trial of Adolf Eichmann in and the broadcast of the television miniseries Holocaust in brought the process of Vergangenheitsbewältigung coping with the past to the forefront for many Germans.
Study of the era and a willingness to critically examine its mistakes has led to the development of a strong democracy in Germany, but with lingering undercurrents of antisemitism and neo-Nazi thought.
In a Körber Foundation survey found that 40 percent of year-olds in Germany did not know what Auschwitz was.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Dritte Reich. For the book, see Das Dritte Reich. Germany from to while under control of the Nazi Party.
Emblem — Germany's territorial control at its greatest extent during World War II late :. Further information: Reich. Further information: Adolf Hitler's rise to power.
Further information: History of Germany. Main article: Gleichschaltung. Main articles: Anschluss and German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Further information: Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Main article: Operation Barbarossa. Main article: Mass suicides in Nazi Germany.
Play media. Further information: World War II casualties. Main article: Territorial evolution of Germany. Main article: Nazism. See also: Government of Nazi Germany.
Main article: Law in Nazi Germany. See also: Myth of the clean Wehrmacht. Main article: Economy of Nazi Germany. See also: List of companies involved in the Holocaust.
Main article: Nazi plunder. Further information: Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany. Further information: Porajmos.
Main article: Aktion T4. Main article: Generalplan Ost. Main articles: The Holocaust and Final Solution. Further information: Occupation of Poland — Main article: Nazi crimes against the Polish nation.
Main article: German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war. Further information: University education in Nazi Germany.
Further information: Women in Nazi Germany. Further information: Animal welfare in Nazi Germany. Main article: Kirchenkampf. See also: Religion in Nazi Germany.
If the experience of the Third Reich teaches us anything, it is that a love of great music, great art and great literature does not provide people with any kind of moral or political immunization against violence, atrocity, or subservience to dictatorship.
See also: List of authors banned in Nazi Germany. Main article: Nazism and cinema. Main article: Consequences of Nazism.
See also: Denazification. Germany portal World War II portal. Tümmler , p. See Statistisches Jahrbuch It could not be expected that even for a brief period our Air Force could make up for our lack of naval supremacy.
Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz believed air superiority was not enough and admitted, "We possessed neither control of the air or the sea; nor were we in any position to gain it.
Goebbel's propaganda campaigns carried out in the second half of and again in had failed to convert them". Evans , p.
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Memoirs: Ten Years and Twenty Days. London: Frontline. Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry series. Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte in German.
Ericksen, Robert P. Betrayal: German Churches and the Holocaust. Minneapolis: Augsberg Fortress. Das Bundesarchiv in German.
Government of Germany. Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 19 May Evans, Richard J.
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German Psychological Warfare. International Propaganda and Communications. New York: Arno Press. Speer: The Final Verdict. Translated by Osers, Ewald; Dring, Alexandra.
San Diego: Harcourt. Nazi Germany: A New History. London: Constable and Company. Holocaust and Genocide Studies. London; New York: Longman.
Nazi Germany and the Jews, — New York: Harper Perennial. Der "Generalplan Ost". Hauptlinien der nationalsozialistischen Planungs- und Vernichtungspolitik by Mechtild Rössler; Sabine Schleiermacher".
Central European History. Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany. Germany Reports. With an introduction by Konrad Adenauer in German.
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