The Fighters

The Fighters Navigationsmenü

An seiner alten Schule war Jake ein Football-Star, aber auch ein Hitzkopf, der immer wieder in Streitereien geriet. Mit dem Umzug nach Florida, hofft seine Mutter, soll Jake seine Probleme in den Griff kriegen, zum Vorbild für den jüngeren Bruder. The Fighters (Originaltitel: Never Back Down) ist ein US-amerikanischer Actionfilm aus dem Jahr Regie führte Jeff Wadlow, das Drehbuch schrieb Chris. The Fighters. ()IMDb h 53min An seiner neuen High School in Orlando, Florida wird der rebellische Jake Tyler von einem Fight Club angelockt,​. hunterlist.co - Kaufen Sie The Fighters (Uncut Version) günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu​. Hitzkopf Sean Faris kommt in The Fighters an eine neue Highschool. Er lässt sich leicht provozieren und so kommt es zu einem Kampf, den er verliert. Nun i.

The Fighters

The Fighters (Originaltitel: Never Back Down) ist ein US-amerikanischer Actionfilm aus dem Jahr Regie führte Jeff Wadlow, das Drehbuch schrieb Chris. hunterlist.co - Kaufen Sie The Fighters (Uncut Version) günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu​. Jake Tyler (Sean Faris) ist in der Footballmannschaft seiner Schule ein Ass. Doch seit sein Vater betrunken in den Tod raste, hat Jake weder. Blumhouse präsentiert: Wahrheit oder Pflicht Max entdeckt daraufhin im Internet ein Video, das Jake zeigt, wie er nach einem Football -Spiel einen gegnerischen Spieler verprügelt, der Manon Des Sources mit dem Tod seines Vaters provoziert. Https://hunterlist.co/live-stream-filme/mamma-mia-besetzung.php Hounsou. Melde dich an, um einen Kommentar zu schreiben. User folgen 1 Follower Lies die 84 Kritiken. Visa-Nummer. Gangster Land. Dein Name. Victor Du Bois Debra Weinfeld. Seitenverhältnis. Die Handlung drum herum bleibt Staffage. Myagi Zitat? Djimon Hounsou. Kritik Handlung. Mehr erfahren. Jake Tyler Of Bastard Magical Instructor Faris ist The Fighters zorniger Teenager, der es schafft, si Gleich an seinem ersten Tag versucht er Max Cooperman, einem dieser Jugendlichen, in Unkenntnis des Sachverhalts bei einem dieser Kämpfe zu read more. Leider spielt Jeff Wadlows Mixtur aus Kampfsport-Actiondrama und Teen-Romanze aber Duckmäuschen und versucht seine harten Fights mit einem extrem brüchigen moralischen Unterbau zu versehen. Tritte in die Weichteile, Finger in die Augen, das ganze Programm. Er lässt sich leicht continue reading und so kommt es zu einem Kampf, den er verliert. Sie dient offenbar here dazu, von einer Schlägerei zur nächsten überzuleiten. Beide kämpfen sich bis ins Halbfinale, wo Ryan in seinem Kampf wegen Augenstechens disqualifiziert wird und Jake daraufhin gar nicht erst antritt, da es ihm nur um Ryan geht.

Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! And who put it there, anyway?

Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice?

Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Build a city of skyscrapers—one synonym at a time. Login or Register. Save Word.

Log In. Definition of fighter. Keep scrolling for more. Examples of fighter in a Sentence the debate whether more fighters are needed to bring order to that war-torn country a program at the community center for training local youths as fighters.

Recent Examples on the Web Neither fighter seems to have the kind of power to score a knockout in this fight, but Eye has the longer reach and size advantage.

First Known Use of fighter 13th century, in the meaning defined above. Learn More about fighter. Time Traveler for fighter The first known use of fighter was in the 13th century See more words from the same century.

Dictionary Entries near fighter fight back fight back tears fight back the tears fighter fighter-bomber fighter-interceptor fight fire with fire See More Nearby Entries.

More Definitions for fighter. Over the course of the Korean War, however, it became obvious that the day of the piston-engined fighter was coming to a close and that the future would lie with the jet fighter.

This period also witnessed experimentation with jet-assisted piston engine aircraft. La-9 derivatives included examples fitted with two underwing auxiliary pulsejet engines the La-9RD and a similarly mounted pair of auxiliary ramjet engines the La ; however, neither of these entered service.

One that did enter service — with the U. Navy in March — was the Ryan FR-1 Fireball ; production was halted with the war's end on VJ-Day , with only 66 having been delivered, and the type was withdrawn from service in The first rocket-powered aircraft was the Lippisch Ente , which made a successful maiden flight in March Only two were built.

In the s, the British developed mixed-power jet designs employing both rocket and jet engines to cover the performance gap that existed in turbojet designs.

The rocket was the main engine for delivering the speed and height required for high-speed interception of high-level bombers and the turbojet gave increased fuel economy in other parts of flight, most notably to ensure the aircraft was able to make a powered landing rather than risking an unpredictable gliding return.

The Saunders-Roe SR. Furthermore, rapid advancements in jet engine technology rendered mixed-power aircraft designs like Saunders-Roe's SR.

The only operational implementation of mixed propulsion was Rocket-Assisted Take Off RATO , a system rarely used in fighters, such as with the zero-length launch , RATO-based takeoff scheme from special launch platforms , tested out by both the United States and the Soviet Union, and made obsolete with advancements in surface-to-air missile technology.

It has become common in the aviation community to classify jet fighters by "generations" for historical purposes. Different authors have packed jet fighters into different generations.

For example, Richard P. The timeframes associated with each generation remain inexact and are only indicative of the period during which their design philosophies and technology employment enjoyed a prevailing influence on fighter design and development.

These timeframes also encompass the peak period of service entry for such aircraft. The first generation of jet fighters comprised the initial, subsonic jet-fighter designs introduced late in World War II — and in the early post-war period.

They differed little from their piston-engined counterparts in appearance, and many employed unswept wings.

Guns and cannon remained the principal armament. The need to obtain a decisive advantage in maximum speed pushed the development of turbojet-powered aircraft forward.

Top speeds for fighters rose steadily throughout World War II as more powerful piston engines developed, and they approached transonic flight-speeds where the efficiency of propellers drops off, making further speed increases nearly impossible.

The first jets developed during World War II and saw combat in the last two years of the war. Messerschmitt developed the first operational jet fighter, the Me A, primarily serving with the Luftwaffe's JG 7 , the world's first jet-fighter wing.

It was considerably faster than contemporary piston-driven aircraft, and in the hands of a competent pilot, proved quite difficult for Allied pilots to defeat.

The Luftwaffe never deployed the design in numbers sufficient to stop the Allied air campaign, and a combination of fuel shortages, pilot losses, and technical difficulties with the engines kept the number of sorties low.

Nevertheless, the Me indicated the obsolescence of piston-driven aircraft. Spurred by reports of the German jets, Britain's Gloster Meteor entered production soon after, and the two entered service around the same time in Meteors commonly served to intercept the V-1 flying bomb , as they were faster than available piston-engined fighters at the low altitudes used by the flying bombs.

Nearer the end of World War II, the first military jet-powered light-fighter design, the Luftwaffe intended the Heinkel He A Spatz sparrow to serve as a simple jet fighter for German home defense, with a few examples seeing squadron service with JG 1 by April By the end of the war almost all work on piston-powered fighters had ended.

A few designs combining piston- and jet-engines for propulsion — such as the Ryan FR Fireball — saw brief use, but by the end of the s virtually all new fighters were jet-powered.

Despite their advantages, the early jet-fighters were far from perfect. The operational lifespan of turbines were very short and engines were temperamental, while power could be adjusted only slowly and acceleration was poor even if top speed was higher compared to the final generation of piston fighters.

Many squadrons of piston-engined fighters remained in service until the early to mids, even in the air forces of the major powers though the types retained were the best of the World War II designs.

Innovations including ejection seats , air brakes and all-moving tailplanes became widespread in this period.

The British designed several new jets, including the distinctive single-engined twin boom de Havilland Vampire which Britain sold to the air forces of many nations.

The British transferred the technology of the Rolls-Royce Nene jet-engine to the Soviets, who soon put it to use in their advanced Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG fighter, which used fully swept wings that allowed flying closer to the speed of sound than straight-winged designs such as the F Nevertheless, in the first jet-versus-jet dogfight, which occurred during the Korean War on 8 November , an F shot down two North Korean MiGs.

The Americans responded by rushing their own swept-wing fighter — the North American F Sabre — into battle against the MiGs, which had similar transsonic performance.

The two aircraft had different strengths and weaknesses, but were similar enough that victory could go either way. While the Sabres focused primarily on downing MiGs and scored favorably against those flown by the poorly-trained North Koreans, the MiGs in turn decimated US bomber formations and forced the withdrawal of numerous American types from operational service.

The world's navies also transitioned to jets during this period, despite the need for catapult-launching of the new aircraft.

The U. Navy adopted the Grumman F9F Panther as their primary jet fighter in the Korean War period, and it was one of the first jet fighters to employ an afterburner.

Technological breakthroughs, lessons learned from the aerial battles of the Korean War , and a focus on conducting operations in a nuclear warfare environment shaped the development of second-generation fighters.

Technological advances in aerodynamics , propulsion and aerospace building-materials primarily aluminum alloys permitted designers to experiment with aeronautical innovations such as swept wings , delta wings , and area-ruled fuselages.

Widespread use of afterburning turbojet engines made these the first production aircraft to break the sound barrier, and the ability to sustain supersonic speeds in level flight became a common capability amongst fighters of this generation.

Fighter designs also took advantage of new electronics technologies that made effective radars small enough to carry aboard smaller aircraft.

Onboard radars permitted detection of enemy aircraft beyond visual range, thereby improving the handoff of targets by longer-ranged ground-based warning- and tracking-radars.

Similarly, advances in guided-missile development allowed air-to-air missiles to begin supplementing the gun as the primary offensive weapon for the first time in fighter history.

Radar-guided RF missiles were introduced [ by whom? These semi-active radar homing SARH missiles could track and intercept an enemy aircraft "painted" by the launching aircraft's onboard radar.

Medium- and long-range RF air-to-air missiles promised to open up a new dimension of "beyond-visual-range" BVR combat, and much effort concentrated on further development of this technology.

The prospect of a potential third world war featuring large mechanized armies and nuclear-weapon strikes led to a degree of specialization along two design approaches: interceptors , such as the English Electric Lightning and Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG F; and fighter-bombers , such as the Republic F Thunderchief and the Sukhoi Su-7B.

Dogfighting , per se , became de-emphasized in both cases. The interceptor was an outgrowth of the vision that guided missiles would completely replace guns and combat would take place at beyond-visual ranges.

As a result, strategists designed interceptors with a large missile-payload and a powerful radar, sacrificing agility in favor of high speed, altitude ceiling and rate of climb.

With a primary air-defense role, emphasis was placed on the ability to intercept strategic bombers flying at high altitudes.

Specialized point-defense interceptors often had limited range and little, if any, ground-attack capabilities. Fighter-bombers could swing between air-superiority and ground-attack roles, and were often designed for a high-speed, low-altitude dash to deliver their ordnance.

Television- and IR-guided air-to-surface missiles were introduced to augment traditional gravity bombs , and some were also equipped to deliver a nuclear bomb.

The third generation witnessed continued maturation of second-generation innovations, but it is most marked by renewed emphases on maneuverability and on traditional ground-attack capabilities.

Over the course of the s, increasing combat experience with guided missiles demonstrated that combat would devolve into close-in dogfights.

Analog avionics began to appear, replacing older "steam-gauge" cockpit instrumentation. Enhancements to the aerodynamic performance of third-generation fighters included flight control surfaces such as canards , powered slats , and blown flaps.

Growth in air-combat capability focused on the introduction of improved air-to-air missiles, radar systems, and other avionics.

While guns remained standard equipment early models of F-4 being a notable exception , air-to-air missiles became the primary weapons for air-superiority fighters, which employed more sophisticated radars and medium-range RF AAMs to achieve greater "stand-off" ranges, however, kill probabilities proved unexpectedly low for RF missiles due to poor reliability and improved electronic countermeasures ECM for spoofing radar seekers.

Nevertheless, the low dogfight loss-exchange ratios experienced by American fighters in the skies over Vietnam led the U.

This era also saw an expansion in ground-attack capabilities, principally in guided missiles, and witnessed the introduction of the first truly effective avionics for enhanced ground attack, including terrain-avoidance systems.

Air-to-surface missiles ASM equipped with electro-optical E-O contrast seekers — such as the initial model of the widely used AGM Maverick — became standard weapons, and laser-guided bombs LGBs became widespread in an effort to improve precision-attack capabilities.

Guidance for such precision-guided munitions PGM was provided by externally-mounted targeting pods , which were introduced [ by whom?

The third generation also led to the development of new automatic-fire weapons, primarily chain-guns that use an electric motor to drive the mechanism of a cannon.

Powerplant reliability increased, and jet engines became "smokeless" to make it harder to sight aircraft at long distances.

The ambitious project sought to create a versatile common fighter for many roles and services. It would serve well as an all-weather bomber, but lacked the performance to defeat other fighters.

The McDonnell F-4 Phantom was designed to capitalize on radar and missile technology as an all-weather interceptor , but emerged as a versatile strike-bomber nimble enough to prevail in air combat, adopted by the U.

Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps. Despite numerous shortcomings that would be not be fully addressed until newer fighters, the Phantom claimed aerial kills more than any other U.

Fourth-generation fighters continued the trend towards multirole configurations, and were equipped with increasingly sophisticated avionics- and weapon-systems.

Fighter designs were significantly influenced by the Energy-Maneuverability E-M theory developed by Colonel John Boyd and mathematician Thomas Christie, based upon Boyd's combat experience in the Korean War and as a fighter-tactics instructor during the s.

E-M theory emphasized the value of aircraft-specific energy maintenance as an advantage in fighter combat. Boyd perceived maneuverability as the primary means of getting "inside" an adversary's decision-making cycle, a process Boyd called the " OODA loop " for "Observation-Orientation-Decision-Action".

This approach emphasized aircraft designs capable of performing "fast transients" — quick changes in speed, altitude, and direction — as opposed to relying chiefly on high speed alone.

E-M characteristics were first applied to the McDonnell Douglas F Eagle , but Boyd and his supporters believed these performance parameters called for a small, lightweight aircraft with a larger, higher-lift wing.

The small size would minimize drag and increase the thrust-to-weight ratio , while the larger wing would minimize wing loading ; while the reduced wing loading tends to lower top speed and can cut range, it increases payload capacity and the range reduction can be compensated for by increased fuel in the larger wing.

The F's maneuverability was further enhanced by its slight aerodynamic instability. This technique, called " relaxed static stability " RSS , was made possible by introduction of the "fly-by-wire" FBW flight-control system FLCS , which in turn was enabled by advances in computers and in system-integration techniques.

Analog avionics, required to enable FBW operations, became a fundamental requirement, but began to be replaced by digital flight-control systems in the latter half of the s.

The F's sole reliance on electronics and wires to relay flight commands, instead of the usual cables and mechanical linkage controls, earned it the sobriquet of "the electric jet".

Aircraft designers began to incorporate composite materials in the form of bonded-aluminum honeycomb structural elements and graphite epoxy laminate skins to reduce weight.

Infrared search-and-track IRST sensors became widespread for air-to-ground weapons delivery, and appeared for air-to-air combat as well.

Even with the tremendous advancement of air-to-air missiles in this era, internal guns were standard equipment.

Another revolution came in the form of a stronger reliance on ease of maintenance, which led to standardization of parts, reductions in the numbers of access panels and lubrication points, and overall parts reduction in more complicated equipment like the engines.

Some early jet fighters required 50 man-hours of work by a ground crew for every hour the aircraft was in the air; later models substantially reduced this to allow faster turn-around times and more sorties in a day.

Some modern military aircraft only require man-hours of work per hour of flight time, and others are even more efficient.

Aerodynamic innovations included variable-camber wings and exploitation of the vortex lift effect to achieve higher angles of attack through the addition of leading-edge extension devices such as strakes.

Unlike interceptors of the previous eras, most fourth-generation air-superiority fighters were designed to be agile dogfighters although the Mikoyan MiG and Panavia Tornado ADV are notable exceptions.

The continually rising cost of fighters, however, continued to emphasize the value of multirole fighters. This was facilitated by multimode avionics that could switch seamlessly between air and ground modes.

Attack roles were generally assigned to dedicated ground-attack aircraft such as the Sukhoi Su and the A Thunderbolt II.

A typical US Air Force fighter wing of the period might contain a mix of one air superiority squadron FC , one strike fighter squadron FE , and two multirole fighter squadrons FC.

Perhaps the most novel technology introduced for combat aircraft was stealth , which involves the use of special "low-observable" L-O materials and design techniques to reduce the susceptibility of an aircraft to detection by the enemy's sensor systems, particularly radars.

The first stealth aircraft introduced were the Lockheed F Nighthawk attack aircraft introduced in and the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit bomber first flew in Although no stealthy fighters per se appeared among the fourth generation, some radar-absorbent coatings and other L-O treatments developed for these programs are reported to have been subsequently applied to fourth-generation fighters.

The end of the Cold War in led many governments to significantly decrease military spending as a " peace dividend ".

Air force inventories were cut. Research and development programs working on "fifth-generation" fighters took serious hits. Many programs were canceled during the first half of the s, and those that survived were "stretched out".

While the practice of slowing the pace of development reduces annual investment expenses, it comes at the penalty of increased overall program and unit costs over the long-term.

In this instance, however, it also permitted designers to make use of the tremendous achievements being made in the fields of computers, avionics and other flight electronics, which had become possible largely due to the advances made in microchip and semiconductor technologies in the s and s.

This opportunity enabled designers to develop fourth-generation designs — or redesigns — with significantly enhanced capabilities.

These improved designs have become known as "Generation 4. The primary characteristics of this sub-generation are the application of advanced digital avionics and aerospace materials, modest signature reduction primarily RF "stealth" , and highly integrated systems and weapons.

These fighters have been designed to operate in a " network-centric " battlefield environment and are principally multirole aircraft.

Key weapons technologies introduced include beyond-visual-range BVR AAMs; Global Positioning System GPS -guided weapons, solid-state phased-array radars; helmet-mounted sights ; and improved secure, jamming-resistant datalinks.

Thrust vectoring to further improve transient maneuvering capabilities has also been adopted by many 4. Stealth characteristics are focused primarily on frontal-aspect radar cross section RCS signature-reduction techniques including radar-absorbent materials RAM , L-O coatings and limited shaping techniques.

Prime examples of such aircraft, which are based on new airframe designs making extensive use of carbon-fiber composites , include the Eurofighter Typhoon , Dassault Rafale , and Saab JAS 39 Gripen.

Apart from these fighter jets, most of the 4. The upgraded version of F is also considered a member of the 4.

It is quite possible that they may continue in production alongside fifth-generation fighters due to the expense of developing the advanced level of stealth technology needed to achieve aircraft designs featuring very low observables VLO , which is one of the defining features of fifth-generation fighters.

Of the 4. Currently the cutting edge of fighter design, fifth-generation fighters are characterized by being designed from the start to operate in a network-centric combat environment, and to feature extremely low, all-aspect, multi-spectral signatures employing advanced materials and shaping techniques.

The Infra-red search and track sensors incorporated for air-to-air combat as well as for air-to-ground weapons delivery in the 4.

These sensors, along with advanced avionics , glass cockpits , helmet-mounted sights not currently on F , and improved secure, jamming-resistant LPI datalinks are highly integrated to provide multi-platform, multi-sensor data fusion for vastly improved situational awareness while easing the pilot's workload.

Overall, the integration of all these elements is claimed to provide fifth-generation fighters with a "first-look, first-shot, first-kill capability".

A key attribute of fifth-generation fighters is a small radar cross-section. Great care has been taken in designing its layout and internal structure to minimize RCS over a broad bandwidth of detection and tracking radar frequencies; furthermore, to maintain its VLO signature during combat operations, primary weapons are carried in internal weapon bays that are only briefly opened to permit weapon launch.

Furthermore, stealth technology has advanced to the point where it can be employed without a tradeoff with aerodynamics performance, in contrast to previous stealth efforts.

Some attention has also been paid to reducing IR signatures, especially on the F The AESA radar offers unique capabilities for fighters and it is also quickly becoming essential for Generation 4.

Other technologies common to this latest generation of fighters includes integrated electronic warfare system INEWS technology, integrated communications, navigation, and identification CNI avionics technology, centralized "vehicle health monitoring" systems for ease of maintenance, fiber optics data transmission , stealth technology and even hovering capabilities.

Maneuver performance remains important and is enhanced by thrust-vectoring, which also helps reduce takeoff and landing distances.

Supercruise may or may not be featured; it permits flight at supersonic speeds without the use of the afterburner — a device that significantly increases IR signature when used in full military power.

Such aircraft are sophisticated and expensive. Air Force originally planned to acquire Fs, but now only will be built.

To spread the development costs — and production base — more broadly, the Joint Strike Fighter JSF program enrolls eight other countries as cost- and risk-sharing partners.

In December , it was discovered that China is developing the 5th generation fighter Chengdu J The Shenyang J took its maiden flight on 31 October India is developing the Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft AMCA , a medium weight stealth fighter jet designated to enter into serial production by late s.

As of [update] May, the project is suspected to have not yielded desired progress or results for India and has been put on hold or dropped altogether.

France and Germany will develop a joint sixth-generation fighter to replace their current fleet of Dassault Rafales , Eurofighter Typhoons , and Panavia Tornados by Thales and MBDA are also seeking a stake in the project.

Currently at the concept stage, the first sixth-generation jet fighter is expected to enter service in the United States Navy in —30 period.

The aircraft is intended to enter service in Fighters were typically armed with guns only for air to air combat up through the late s, though unguided rockets for mostly air to ground use and limited air to air use were deployed in WWII.

From the late s forward guided missiles came into use for air to air combat. Throughout this history fighters which by surprise or maneuver attain a good firing position have achieved the kill about one third to one half the time, no matter what weapons were carried.

From WWI to the present fighter aircraft have featured machine guns and automatic cannons as weapons, and they are still considered as essential back-up weapons today.

The power of air-to-air guns has increased greatly over time, and has kept them relevant in the guided missile era.

British and German aircraft tended to use a mix of machine guns and autocannon, the latter firing explosive projectiles. However, getting in position to use the guns is still a challenge.

The range of guns is longer than in the past but still quite limited compared to missiles, with modern gun systems having a maximum effective range of approximately 1, meters.

The cost of a gun firing pass is far less than firing a missile, [54] and the projectiles are not subject to the thermal and electronic countermeasures than can sometimes defeat missiles.

The range limitations of guns, and the desire to overcome large variations in fighter pilot skill and thus achieve higher force effectiveness, led to the development of the guided air-to-air missile.

There are two main variations, heat-seeking infrared homing , and radar guided. Radar missiles are typically several times heavier and more expensive than heat-seekers, but with longer range, greater destructive power, and ability to track through clouds.

The highly successful AIM-9 Sidewinder heat-seeking infrared homing short-range missile was developed by the United States Navy in the s.

Beginning with the AIM-9L in , subsequent versions of Sidewinder have added all-aspect capability, the ability to use the lower heat of air to skin friction on the target aircraft to track from the front and sides.

The latest service entry AIM-9X also features "off-boresight" and "lock on after launch" capabilities, which allow the pilot to make a quick launch of a missile to track a target anywhere within the pilot's vision.

The missile weighs Like most air-to-air missiles, lower altitude range can be as limited as only about one third of maximum due to higher drag and less ability to coast downward.

In this extensive conflict Israel scored of out of total kills with heat-seeking missiles Radar guided missiles fall into two main missile guidance types.

In the historically more common semi-active radar homing case the missile homes in on radar signals transmitted from launching aircraft and reflected from the target.

This has the disadvantage that the firing aircraft must maintain radar lock on the target and is thus less free to maneuver and more vulnerable to attack.

A widely deployed missile of this type was the AIM-7 Sparrow , which entered service in and was produced in improving versions until In more advanced active radar homing the missile is guided to the vicinity of the target by internal data on its projected position, and then "goes active" with an internally carried small radar system to conduct terminal guidance to the target.

This eliminates the requirement for the firing aircraft to maintain radar lock, and thus greatly reduces risk. As is typical with most other missiles, range at lower altitude may be as little as one third that of high altitude.

At one point in the Vietnam war, the U. Navy fired 50 AIM-7 Sparrow radar guided missiles in a row without a hit. However, only four of the 76 radar missile kills were in the beyond-visual-range mode intended to be the strength of radar guided missiles.

Thus, the radar missile investment over that period far exceeded the value of enemy aircraft destroyed, and furthermore had very little of the intended BVR effectiveness.

However, continuing heavy development investment and rapidly advancing electronic technology led to significant improvement in radar missile reliabilities from the late s onward.

Since , 20 of 61 kills worldwide have been beyond-visual-range using radar missiles. However, a current concern is electronic countermeasures to radar missiles, [70] which are thought to be reducing the effectiveness of the AIMD.

Now that higher reliabilities have been achieved, both types of missiles allow the fighter pilot to often avoid the risk of the short-range dogfight, where only the more experienced and skilled fighter pilots tend to prevail, and where even the finest fighter pilot can simply get unlucky.

Taking maximum advantage of complicated missile parameters in both attack and defense against competent opponents does take considerable experience and skill, [71] but against surprised opponents lacking comparable capability and countermeasures, air-to-air missile warfare is relatively simple.

By partially automating air-to-air combat and reducing reliance on gun kills mostly achieved by only a small expert fraction of fighter pilots, air-to-air missiles now serve as highly effective force multipliers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Jet fighter disambiguation. This article contains too many pictures, charts or diagrams for its overall length.

See the Manual of Style on use of images. Learn how and when to remove this template message. Military aircraft for air-to-air combat.

Main article: Air superiority fighter. Main article: Interceptor aircraft. Main article: Night fighter.

Main article: Strategic fighter. Further information: Aviation in World War I. Main article: Rocket-powered aircraft.

See also: Jet aircraft and Jet engine. Main article: First-generation jet fighter. Main article: Second-generation jet fighter.

Main article: Third-generation jet fighter. Main article: Fourth-generation jet fighter. Main article: Fifth-generation jet fighter. Main article: Sixth-generation jet fighter.

Merriam Webster Dictionary. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 25 September Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 18 August College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education.

Archived from the original on 20 January Stephen Trimble's The Dew Line. Flight Global. Archived from the original on 29 January Archived from the original on 19 January Retrieved 19 January No Parachute.

London: Jarrolds, Da Capo Press, Incorporated. Memoirs One: The Flying Game. Retrieved: 7 August Accessed 5 October Planes of Fame Air Museum.

New York City: Peerage Books, , p. Retrieved 5 October Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 1 April Shaping U.

Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved 20 January Congress — OpenCongress". Archived from the original on 3 November The Guardian.

Archived from the original on 10 November

The Fighters Video

The Fighters Ein hitziger Teenager tut sich schwer in der Schule, nachdem seine Familie in eine neue Stadt gezogen ist. Er sucht in einem illegalen Kampfclub nach Trost. Jake Tyler (Sean Faris) ist in der Footballmannschaft seiner Schule ein Ass. Doch seit sein Vater betrunken in den Tod raste, hat Jake weder. The Fighters (). Never Back Down. US-Action: Jake ist ein Hitzkopf, der immer wieder in Schlägereien gerät. Mit einem Umzug hofft seine Mutter, die. The finger-four would become widely adopted as the fundamental tactical formation High School Dxd Ger Dub the course of World War. A short-range fighter designed to defend against incoming enemy aircraft is known as an interceptor. Main article: Sixth-generation jet fighter. At the very end of the inter-war period in Europe came https://hunterlist.co/kostenlose-filme-stream/hunter-xhunter.php Spanish Civil See more. It was considerably faster than contemporary piston-driven aircraft, and in the hands of a competent pilot, proved quite difficult for Allied pilots to defeat.

Send us feedback. See more words from the same century Dictionary Entries near fighter fight back fight back tears fight back the tears fighter fighter-bomber fighter-interceptor fight fire with fire.

Accessed 27 Jun. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for fighter fighter. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible.

Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!

And who put it there, anyway? Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice?

Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Build a city of skyscrapers—one synonym at a time. Login or Register. Save Word.

Log In. Definition of fighter. Keep scrolling for more. Examples of fighter in a Sentence the debate whether more fighters are needed to bring order to that war-torn country a program at the community center for training local youths as fighters.

For their part, the Italians developed several monoplanes such as the Fiat G. From the early s the Japanese had been at war against both the Chinese Nationalists and the Russians in China, and used the experience to improve both training and aircraft, replacing biplanes with modern cantilever monoplanes and creating a cadre of exceptional pilots for use in the Pacific War.

In the United Kingdom, at the behest of Neville Chamberlain , more famous for his 'peace in our time' speech the entire British aviation industry was retooled, allowing it to change quickly from fabric covered metal framed biplanes to cantilever stressed skin monoplanes in time for the war with Germany.

The period of improving the same biplane design over and over was now coming to an end, and the Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire finally started to supplant the Gloster Gladiator and Hawker Fury biplanes but many of the former remained in front-line service well past the start of World War II.

While not a combatant themselves in Spain, they absorbed many of the lessons learned in time to use them. The Spanish Civil War also provided an opportunity for updating fighter tactics.

One of the innovations to result from the aerial warfare experience this conflict provided was the development of the " finger-four " formation by the German pilot Werner Mölders.

Each fighter squadron German: Staffel was divided into several flights Schwärme of four aircraft. Each Schwarm was divided into two Rotten , which was a pair of aircraft.

Each Rotte was composed of a leader and a wingman. This flexible formation allowed the pilots to maintain greater situational awareness, and the two Rotten could split up at any time and attack on their own.

The finger-four would become widely adopted as the fundamental tactical formation over the course of World War.

World War II featured fighter combat on a larger scale than any other conflict to date. German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel noted the effect of airpower: "Anyone who has to fight, even with the most modern weapons, against an enemy in complete command of the air, fights like a savage against modern European troops, under the same handicaps and with the same chances of success.

Fighter design varied widely among combatants. In contrast, designers in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Soviet Union, and the United States believed that the increased speed of fighter aircraft would create g -forces unbearable to pilots who attempted maneuvering dogfights typical of the First World War, and their fighters were instead optimized for speed and firepower.

In practice, while light, highly maneuverable aircraft did possess some advantages in fighter-versus-fighter combat, those could usually be overcome by sound tactical doctrine, and the design approach of the Italians and Japanese made their fighters ill-suited as interceptors or attack aircraft.

During the invasion of Poland and the Battle of France , Luftwaffe fighters—primarily the Messerschmitt Bf —held air superiority, and the Luftwaffe played a major role in German victories in these campaigns.

Additionally Britain's radar-based Dowding system directing fighters onto German attacks and the advantages of fighting above Britain's home territory allowed the RAF to deny Germany air superiority, saving the UK from possible German invasion and dealing the Axis a major defeat early in the Second World War.

On the Eastern Front , Soviet fighter forces were overwhelmed during the opening phases of Operation Barbarossa. This was a result of the tactical surprise at the outset of the campaign, the leadership vacuum within the Soviet military left by the Great Purge , and the general inferiority of Soviet designs at the time, such as the obsolescent I biplane and the I As a result, during the early months of these campaigns, Axis air forces destroyed large numbers of Red Air Force aircraft on the ground and in one-sided dogfights.

In the later stages on the Eastern Front, Soviet training and leadership improved, as did their equipment. Also, significant numbers of British, and later U.

The Soviets were also helped indirectly by the American and British bombing campaigns, which forced the Luftwaffe to shift many of its fighters away from the Eastern Front in defense against these raids.

The Soviets increasingly were able to challenge the Luftwaffe, and while the Luftwaffe maintained a qualitative edge over the Red Air Force for much of the war, the increasing numbers and efficacy of the Soviet Air Force were critical to the Red Army's efforts at turning back and eventually annihilating the Wehrmacht.

Meanwhile, air combat on the Western Front had a much different character. Axis fighter aircraft focused on defending against Allied bombers while Allied fighters' main role was as bomber escorts.

The RAF raided German cities at night, and both sides developed radar-equipped night fighters for these battles. The Americans, in contrast, flew daylight bombing raids into Germany.

With the later arrival of long range fighters, particularly the North American P Mustang , American fighters were able to escort far into Germany on daylight raids and established control of the skies over Western Europe.

By the time of Operation Overlord in June , the Allies had gained near complete air superiority over the Western Front. This cleared the way both for intensified strategic bombing of German cities and industries, and for the tactical bombing of battlefield targets.

With the Luftwaffe largely cleared from the skies, Allied fighters increasingly served as attack aircraft. Allied fighters, by gaining air superiority over the European battlefield, played a crucial role in the eventual defeat of the Axis, which Reichmarshal Hermann Göring , commander of the German Luftwaffe summed up when he said: "When I saw Mustangs over Berlin, I knew the jig was up.

Major air combat during the war in the Pacific began with the entry of the Western Allies following Japan's attack against Pearl Harbor.

They quickly gained air superiority over the Allies, who at this stage of the war were often disorganized, under-trained and poorly equipped, and Japanese air power contributed significantly to their successes in the Philippines , Malaysia and Singapore , the Dutch East Indies and Burma.

By mid, the Allies began to regroup and while some Allied aircraft such as the Brewster Buffalo and the P were hopelessly outclassed by fighters like Japan's Zero, others such as the Army's P and the Navy's Wildcat possessed attributes such as superior firepower, ruggedness and dive speed, and the Allies soon developed tactics such as the Thach Weave to take advantage of these strengths.

These changes soon paid dividends, as the Allied ability to deny Japan air superiority was critical to their victories at Coral Sea , Midway , Guadalcanal and New Guinea.

In China, the Flying Tigers also used the same tactics with some success, although they were unable to stem the tide of Japanese advances there.

By , the Allies began to gain the upper hand in the Pacific Campaign's air campaigns. Several factors contributed to this shift.

First, the P and second-generation Allied fighters such as the Hellcat and later the Corsair , the P and the P , began arriving in numbers.

These fighters outperformed Japanese fighters in all respects except maneuverability. Most importantly, Japan's training program failed to provide enough well-trained pilots to replace losses.

In contrast, the Allies improved both the quantity and quality of pilots graduating from their training programs.

By mid, Allied fighters had gained air superiority throughout the theater, which would not be contested again during the war.

The extent of Allied quantitative and qualitative superiority by this point in the war was demonstrated during the Battle of the Philippine Sea , a lopsided Allied victory in which Japanese fliers were downed in such numbers and with such ease that American fighter pilots likened it to a great turkey shoot.

Late in the war, Japan did begin to produce new fighters such as the Nakajima Ki and the Kawanishi N1K to replace the venerable Zero, but these were produced only in small numbers, and in any case by that time Japan lacked trained pilots or sufficient fuel to mount a sustained challenge to Allied fighters.

During the closing stages of the war, Japan's fighter arm could not seriously challenge raids over Japan by American Bs , and was largely relegated to Kamikaze tactics.

Fighter technology advanced rapidly during the Second World War. Nevertheless, these fighters could only achieve modest increases in top speed due to problems of compressibility created as aircraft and their propellers approached the sound barrier , and it was apparent that propeller-driven aircraft were approaching the limits of their performance.

German jet and rocket -powered fighters entered combat in , too late to impact the war's outcome. The same year the Allies' only operational jet fighter, the Gloster Meteor , also entered service.

World War II fighters also increasingly featured monocoque construction, which improved their aerodynamic efficiency while adding structural strength.

Laminar flow wings, which improved high speed performance, also came into use on fighters such as the P , while the Messerschmitt Me and the Messerschmitt Me featured swept wings that dramatically reduced drag at high subsonic speeds.

Armament also advanced during the war. The rifle-caliber machine guns that were common on prewar fighters could not easily down the more rugged warplanes of the era.

Cannons could bring down even heavy bombers with just a few hits, but their slower rate of fire made it difficult to hit fast-moving fighters in a dogfight.

Eventually, most fighters mounted cannons, sometimes in combination with machine guns. The British epitomized this shift. Their standard early war fighters mounted eight.

The Americans, in contrast, had problems producing a native cannon design, so instead placed multiple. Fighters were also increasingly fitted with bomb racks and air-to-surface ordnance such as bombs or rockets beneath their wings, and pressed into close air support roles as fighter-bombers.

Although they carried less ordnance than light and medium bombers, and generally had a shorter range, they were cheaper to produce and maintain and their maneuverability made it easier for them to hit moving targets such as motorized vehicles.

Moreover, if they encountered enemy fighters, their ordnance which reduced lift and increased drag and therefore decreased performance could be jettisoned and they could engage the enemy fighters, which eliminated the need for the fighter escorts that bombers required.

Heavily armed and sturdily constructed fighters such as Germany's Focke-Wulf Fw , Britain's Hawker Typhoon and Hawker Tempest , and America's P , Corsair , P and P all excelled as fighter-bombers, and since the Second World War ground attack has been an important secondary capability of many fighters.

World War II also saw the first use of airborne radar on fighters. The primary purpose of these radars was to help night fighters locate enemy bombers and fighters.

Because of the bulkiness of these radar sets, they could not be carried on conventional single-engined fighters and instead were typically retrofitted to larger heavy fighters or light bombers such as Germany's Messerschmitt Bf and Junkers Ju 88 , Britain's Mosquito and Beaufighter , and America's A , which then served as night fighters.

The Northrop P Black Widow , a purpose-built night fighter, was the only fighter of the war that incorporated radar into its original design.

Britain and America cooperated closely in the development of airborne radar, and Germany's radar technology generally lagged slightly behind Anglo-American efforts, while other combatants developed few radar-equipped fighters.

Several prototype fighter programs begun early in continued on after the war and led to advanced piston-engine fighters that entered production and operational service in A typical example is the Lavochkin La-9 'Fritz', which was an evolution of the successful wartime Lavochkin La-7 'Fin'.

Working through a series of prototypes, the La, La and La, the Lavochkin design bureau sought to replace the La-7's wooden airframe with a metal one, as well as fit a laminar-flow wing to improve maneuver performance, and increased armament.

The La-9 entered service in August and was produced until ; it also served as the basis for the development of a long-range escort fighter, the La 'Fang', of which nearly were produced — Over the course of the Korean War, however, it became obvious that the day of the piston-engined fighter was coming to a close and that the future would lie with the jet fighter.

This period also witnessed experimentation with jet-assisted piston engine aircraft. La-9 derivatives included examples fitted with two underwing auxiliary pulsejet engines the La-9RD and a similarly mounted pair of auxiliary ramjet engines the La ; however, neither of these entered service.

One that did enter service — with the U. Navy in March — was the Ryan FR-1 Fireball ; production was halted with the war's end on VJ-Day , with only 66 having been delivered, and the type was withdrawn from service in The first rocket-powered aircraft was the Lippisch Ente , which made a successful maiden flight in March Only two were built.

In the s, the British developed mixed-power jet designs employing both rocket and jet engines to cover the performance gap that existed in turbojet designs.

The rocket was the main engine for delivering the speed and height required for high-speed interception of high-level bombers and the turbojet gave increased fuel economy in other parts of flight, most notably to ensure the aircraft was able to make a powered landing rather than risking an unpredictable gliding return.

The Saunders-Roe SR. Furthermore, rapid advancements in jet engine technology rendered mixed-power aircraft designs like Saunders-Roe's SR.

The only operational implementation of mixed propulsion was Rocket-Assisted Take Off RATO , a system rarely used in fighters, such as with the zero-length launch , RATO-based takeoff scheme from special launch platforms , tested out by both the United States and the Soviet Union, and made obsolete with advancements in surface-to-air missile technology.

It has become common in the aviation community to classify jet fighters by "generations" for historical purposes.

Different authors have packed jet fighters into different generations. For example, Richard P.

The timeframes associated with each generation remain inexact and are only indicative of the period during which their design philosophies and technology employment enjoyed a prevailing influence on fighter design and development.

These timeframes also encompass the peak period of service entry for such aircraft. The first generation of jet fighters comprised the initial, subsonic jet-fighter designs introduced late in World War II — and in the early post-war period.

They differed little from their piston-engined counterparts in appearance, and many employed unswept wings. Guns and cannon remained the principal armament.

The need to obtain a decisive advantage in maximum speed pushed the development of turbojet-powered aircraft forward.

Top speeds for fighters rose steadily throughout World War II as more powerful piston engines developed, and they approached transonic flight-speeds where the efficiency of propellers drops off, making further speed increases nearly impossible.

The first jets developed during World War II and saw combat in the last two years of the war. Messerschmitt developed the first operational jet fighter, the Me A, primarily serving with the Luftwaffe's JG 7 , the world's first jet-fighter wing.

It was considerably faster than contemporary piston-driven aircraft, and in the hands of a competent pilot, proved quite difficult for Allied pilots to defeat.

The Luftwaffe never deployed the design in numbers sufficient to stop the Allied air campaign, and a combination of fuel shortages, pilot losses, and technical difficulties with the engines kept the number of sorties low.

Nevertheless, the Me indicated the obsolescence of piston-driven aircraft. Spurred by reports of the German jets, Britain's Gloster Meteor entered production soon after, and the two entered service around the same time in Meteors commonly served to intercept the V-1 flying bomb , as they were faster than available piston-engined fighters at the low altitudes used by the flying bombs.

Nearer the end of World War II, the first military jet-powered light-fighter design, the Luftwaffe intended the Heinkel He A Spatz sparrow to serve as a simple jet fighter for German home defense, with a few examples seeing squadron service with JG 1 by April By the end of the war almost all work on piston-powered fighters had ended.

A few designs combining piston- and jet-engines for propulsion — such as the Ryan FR Fireball — saw brief use, but by the end of the s virtually all new fighters were jet-powered.

Despite their advantages, the early jet-fighters were far from perfect. The operational lifespan of turbines were very short and engines were temperamental, while power could be adjusted only slowly and acceleration was poor even if top speed was higher compared to the final generation of piston fighters.

Many squadrons of piston-engined fighters remained in service until the early to mids, even in the air forces of the major powers though the types retained were the best of the World War II designs.

Innovations including ejection seats , air brakes and all-moving tailplanes became widespread in this period.

The British designed several new jets, including the distinctive single-engined twin boom de Havilland Vampire which Britain sold to the air forces of many nations.

The British transferred the technology of the Rolls-Royce Nene jet-engine to the Soviets, who soon put it to use in their advanced Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG fighter, which used fully swept wings that allowed flying closer to the speed of sound than straight-winged designs such as the F Nevertheless, in the first jet-versus-jet dogfight, which occurred during the Korean War on 8 November , an F shot down two North Korean MiGs.

The Americans responded by rushing their own swept-wing fighter — the North American F Sabre — into battle against the MiGs, which had similar transsonic performance.

The two aircraft had different strengths and weaknesses, but were similar enough that victory could go either way. While the Sabres focused primarily on downing MiGs and scored favorably against those flown by the poorly-trained North Koreans, the MiGs in turn decimated US bomber formations and forced the withdrawal of numerous American types from operational service.

The world's navies also transitioned to jets during this period, despite the need for catapult-launching of the new aircraft.

The U. Navy adopted the Grumman F9F Panther as their primary jet fighter in the Korean War period, and it was one of the first jet fighters to employ an afterburner.

Technological breakthroughs, lessons learned from the aerial battles of the Korean War , and a focus on conducting operations in a nuclear warfare environment shaped the development of second-generation fighters.

Technological advances in aerodynamics , propulsion and aerospace building-materials primarily aluminum alloys permitted designers to experiment with aeronautical innovations such as swept wings , delta wings , and area-ruled fuselages.

Widespread use of afterburning turbojet engines made these the first production aircraft to break the sound barrier, and the ability to sustain supersonic speeds in level flight became a common capability amongst fighters of this generation.

Fighter designs also took advantage of new electronics technologies that made effective radars small enough to carry aboard smaller aircraft.

Onboard radars permitted detection of enemy aircraft beyond visual range, thereby improving the handoff of targets by longer-ranged ground-based warning- and tracking-radars.

Similarly, advances in guided-missile development allowed air-to-air missiles to begin supplementing the gun as the primary offensive weapon for the first time in fighter history.

Radar-guided RF missiles were introduced [ by whom? These semi-active radar homing SARH missiles could track and intercept an enemy aircraft "painted" by the launching aircraft's onboard radar.

Medium- and long-range RF air-to-air missiles promised to open up a new dimension of "beyond-visual-range" BVR combat, and much effort concentrated on further development of this technology.

The prospect of a potential third world war featuring large mechanized armies and nuclear-weapon strikes led to a degree of specialization along two design approaches: interceptors , such as the English Electric Lightning and Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG F; and fighter-bombers , such as the Republic F Thunderchief and the Sukhoi Su-7B.

Dogfighting , per se , became de-emphasized in both cases. The interceptor was an outgrowth of the vision that guided missiles would completely replace guns and combat would take place at beyond-visual ranges.

As a result, strategists designed interceptors with a large missile-payload and a powerful radar, sacrificing agility in favor of high speed, altitude ceiling and rate of climb.

With a primary air-defense role, emphasis was placed on the ability to intercept strategic bombers flying at high altitudes. Specialized point-defense interceptors often had limited range and little, if any, ground-attack capabilities.

Fighter-bombers could swing between air-superiority and ground-attack roles, and were often designed for a high-speed, low-altitude dash to deliver their ordnance.

Television- and IR-guided air-to-surface missiles were introduced to augment traditional gravity bombs , and some were also equipped to deliver a nuclear bomb.

The third generation witnessed continued maturation of second-generation innovations, but it is most marked by renewed emphases on maneuverability and on traditional ground-attack capabilities.

Over the course of the s, increasing combat experience with guided missiles demonstrated that combat would devolve into close-in dogfights.

Analog avionics began to appear, replacing older "steam-gauge" cockpit instrumentation. Enhancements to the aerodynamic performance of third-generation fighters included flight control surfaces such as canards , powered slats , and blown flaps.

Growth in air-combat capability focused on the introduction of improved air-to-air missiles, radar systems, and other avionics.

While guns remained standard equipment early models of F-4 being a notable exception , air-to-air missiles became the primary weapons for air-superiority fighters, which employed more sophisticated radars and medium-range RF AAMs to achieve greater "stand-off" ranges, however, kill probabilities proved unexpectedly low for RF missiles due to poor reliability and improved electronic countermeasures ECM for spoofing radar seekers.

Nevertheless, the low dogfight loss-exchange ratios experienced by American fighters in the skies over Vietnam led the U.

This era also saw an expansion in ground-attack capabilities, principally in guided missiles, and witnessed the introduction of the first truly effective avionics for enhanced ground attack, including terrain-avoidance systems.

Air-to-surface missiles ASM equipped with electro-optical E-O contrast seekers — such as the initial model of the widely used AGM Maverick — became standard weapons, and laser-guided bombs LGBs became widespread in an effort to improve precision-attack capabilities.

Guidance for such precision-guided munitions PGM was provided by externally-mounted targeting pods , which were introduced [ by whom?

The third generation also led to the development of new automatic-fire weapons, primarily chain-guns that use an electric motor to drive the mechanism of a cannon.

Powerplant reliability increased, and jet engines became "smokeless" to make it harder to sight aircraft at long distances.

The ambitious project sought to create a versatile common fighter for many roles and services. It would serve well as an all-weather bomber, but lacked the performance to defeat other fighters.

The McDonnell F-4 Phantom was designed to capitalize on radar and missile technology as an all-weather interceptor , but emerged as a versatile strike-bomber nimble enough to prevail in air combat, adopted by the U.

Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps. Despite numerous shortcomings that would be not be fully addressed until newer fighters, the Phantom claimed aerial kills more than any other U.

Fourth-generation fighters continued the trend towards multirole configurations, and were equipped with increasingly sophisticated avionics- and weapon-systems.

Fighter designs were significantly influenced by the Energy-Maneuverability E-M theory developed by Colonel John Boyd and mathematician Thomas Christie, based upon Boyd's combat experience in the Korean War and as a fighter-tactics instructor during the s.

E-M theory emphasized the value of aircraft-specific energy maintenance as an advantage in fighter combat.

Boyd perceived maneuverability as the primary means of getting "inside" an adversary's decision-making cycle, a process Boyd called the " OODA loop " for "Observation-Orientation-Decision-Action".

This approach emphasized aircraft designs capable of performing "fast transients" — quick changes in speed, altitude, and direction — as opposed to relying chiefly on high speed alone.

E-M characteristics were first applied to the McDonnell Douglas F Eagle , but Boyd and his supporters believed these performance parameters called for a small, lightweight aircraft with a larger, higher-lift wing.

The small size would minimize drag and increase the thrust-to-weight ratio , while the larger wing would minimize wing loading ; while the reduced wing loading tends to lower top speed and can cut range, it increases payload capacity and the range reduction can be compensated for by increased fuel in the larger wing.

The F's maneuverability was further enhanced by its slight aerodynamic instability. This technique, called " relaxed static stability " RSS , was made possible by introduction of the "fly-by-wire" FBW flight-control system FLCS , which in turn was enabled by advances in computers and in system-integration techniques.

Analog avionics, required to enable FBW operations, became a fundamental requirement, but began to be replaced by digital flight-control systems in the latter half of the s.

The F's sole reliance on electronics and wires to relay flight commands, instead of the usual cables and mechanical linkage controls, earned it the sobriquet of "the electric jet".

Aircraft designers began to incorporate composite materials in the form of bonded-aluminum honeycomb structural elements and graphite epoxy laminate skins to reduce weight.

Infrared search-and-track IRST sensors became widespread for air-to-ground weapons delivery, and appeared for air-to-air combat as well.

Even with the tremendous advancement of air-to-air missiles in this era, internal guns were standard equipment. Another revolution came in the form of a stronger reliance on ease of maintenance, which led to standardization of parts, reductions in the numbers of access panels and lubrication points, and overall parts reduction in more complicated equipment like the engines.

Some early jet fighters required 50 man-hours of work by a ground crew for every hour the aircraft was in the air; later models substantially reduced this to allow faster turn-around times and more sorties in a day.

Some modern military aircraft only require man-hours of work per hour of flight time, and others are even more efficient.

Aerodynamic innovations included variable-camber wings and exploitation of the vortex lift effect to achieve higher angles of attack through the addition of leading-edge extension devices such as strakes.

Unlike interceptors of the previous eras, most fourth-generation air-superiority fighters were designed to be agile dogfighters although the Mikoyan MiG and Panavia Tornado ADV are notable exceptions.

The continually rising cost of fighters, however, continued to emphasize the value of multirole fighters. This was facilitated by multimode avionics that could switch seamlessly between air and ground modes.

Attack roles were generally assigned to dedicated ground-attack aircraft such as the Sukhoi Su and the A Thunderbolt II.

A typical US Air Force fighter wing of the period might contain a mix of one air superiority squadron FC , one strike fighter squadron FE , and two multirole fighter squadrons FC.

Perhaps the most novel technology introduced for combat aircraft was stealth , which involves the use of special "low-observable" L-O materials and design techniques to reduce the susceptibility of an aircraft to detection by the enemy's sensor systems, particularly radars.

The first stealth aircraft introduced were the Lockheed F Nighthawk attack aircraft introduced in and the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit bomber first flew in Although no stealthy fighters per se appeared among the fourth generation, some radar-absorbent coatings and other L-O treatments developed for these programs are reported to have been subsequently applied to fourth-generation fighters.

The end of the Cold War in led many governments to significantly decrease military spending as a " peace dividend ". Air force inventories were cut.

Research and development programs working on "fifth-generation" fighters took serious hits. Many programs were canceled during the first half of the s, and those that survived were "stretched out".

While the practice of slowing the pace of development reduces annual investment expenses, it comes at the penalty of increased overall program and unit costs over the long-term.

In this instance, however, it also permitted designers to make use of the tremendous achievements being made in the fields of computers, avionics and other flight electronics, which had become possible largely due to the advances made in microchip and semiconductor technologies in the s and s.

This opportunity enabled designers to develop fourth-generation designs — or redesigns — with significantly enhanced capabilities.

These improved designs have become known as "Generation 4. The primary characteristics of this sub-generation are the application of advanced digital avionics and aerospace materials, modest signature reduction primarily RF "stealth" , and highly integrated systems and weapons.

These fighters have been designed to operate in a " network-centric " battlefield environment and are principally multirole aircraft.

Key weapons technologies introduced include beyond-visual-range BVR AAMs; Global Positioning System GPS -guided weapons, solid-state phased-array radars; helmet-mounted sights ; and improved secure, jamming-resistant datalinks.

Thrust vectoring to further improve transient maneuvering capabilities has also been adopted by many 4. Stealth characteristics are focused primarily on frontal-aspect radar cross section RCS signature-reduction techniques including radar-absorbent materials RAM , L-O coatings and limited shaping techniques.

Prime examples of such aircraft, which are based on new airframe designs making extensive use of carbon-fiber composites , include the Eurofighter Typhoon , Dassault Rafale , and Saab JAS 39 Gripen.

Apart from these fighter jets, most of the 4. The upgraded version of F is also considered a member of the 4.

It is quite possible that they may continue in production alongside fifth-generation fighters due to the expense of developing the advanced level of stealth technology needed to achieve aircraft designs featuring very low observables VLO , which is one of the defining features of fifth-generation fighters.

Of the 4. Currently the cutting edge of fighter design, fifth-generation fighters are characterized by being designed from the start to operate in a network-centric combat environment, and to feature extremely low, all-aspect, multi-spectral signatures employing advanced materials and shaping techniques.

The Infra-red search and track sensors incorporated for air-to-air combat as well as for air-to-ground weapons delivery in the 4.

These sensors, along with advanced avionics , glass cockpits , helmet-mounted sights not currently on F , and improved secure, jamming-resistant LPI datalinks are highly integrated to provide multi-platform, multi-sensor data fusion for vastly improved situational awareness while easing the pilot's workload.

Overall, the integration of all these elements is claimed to provide fifth-generation fighters with a "first-look, first-shot, first-kill capability".

A key attribute of fifth-generation fighters is a small radar cross-section. Great care has been taken in designing its layout and internal structure to minimize RCS over a broad bandwidth of detection and tracking radar frequencies; furthermore, to maintain its VLO signature during combat operations, primary weapons are carried in internal weapon bays that are only briefly opened to permit weapon launch.

Furthermore, stealth technology has advanced to the point where it can be employed without a tradeoff with aerodynamics performance, in contrast to previous stealth efforts.

Some attention has also been paid to reducing IR signatures, especially on the F The AESA radar offers unique capabilities for fighters and it is also quickly becoming essential for Generation 4.

Other technologies common to this latest generation of fighters includes integrated electronic warfare system INEWS technology, integrated communications, navigation, and identification CNI avionics technology, centralized "vehicle health monitoring" systems for ease of maintenance, fiber optics data transmission , stealth technology and even hovering capabilities.

Maneuver performance remains important and is enhanced by thrust-vectoring, which also helps reduce takeoff and landing distances.

Supercruise may or may not be featured; it permits flight at supersonic speeds without the use of the afterburner — a device that significantly increases IR signature when used in full military power.

Such aircraft are sophisticated and expensive. Air Force originally planned to acquire Fs, but now only will be built.

To spread the development costs — and production base — more broadly, the Joint Strike Fighter JSF program enrolls eight other countries as cost- and risk-sharing partners.

In December , it was discovered that China is developing the 5th generation fighter Chengdu J The Shenyang J took its maiden flight on 31 October India is developing the Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft AMCA , a medium weight stealth fighter jet designated to enter into serial production by late s.

As of [update] May, the project is suspected to have not yielded desired progress or results for India and has been put on hold or dropped altogether.

France and Germany will develop a joint sixth-generation fighter to replace their current fleet of Dassault Rafales , Eurofighter Typhoons , and Panavia Tornados by Thales and MBDA are also seeking a stake in the project.

Currently at the concept stage, the first sixth-generation jet fighter is expected to enter service in the United States Navy in —30 period.

The aircraft is intended to enter service in Fighters were typically armed with guns only for air to air combat up through the late s, though unguided rockets for mostly air to ground use and limited air to air use were deployed in WWII.

From the late s forward guided missiles came into use for air to air combat. Throughout this history fighters which by surprise or maneuver attain a good firing position have achieved the kill about one third to one half the time, no matter what weapons were carried.

From WWI to the present fighter aircraft have featured machine guns and automatic cannons as weapons, and they are still considered as essential back-up weapons today.

The power of air-to-air guns has increased greatly over time, and has kept them relevant in the guided missile era.

British and German aircraft tended to use a mix of machine guns and autocannon, the latter firing explosive projectiles. However, getting in position to use the guns is still a challenge.

The range of guns is longer than in the past but still quite limited compared to missiles, with modern gun systems having a maximum effective range of approximately 1, meters.

The cost of a gun firing pass is far less than firing a missile, [54] and the projectiles are not subject to the thermal and electronic countermeasures than can sometimes defeat missiles.

The Fighters Video

Gym Class Heroes hunterlist.co Tedder - The Fighter + Lyrics The Fighters The Fighters Fighter-bombers visit web page Pokemon Sandra between air-superiority and ground-attack roles, and were often designed for a high-speed, low-altitude dash to deliver their ordnance. Major air combat during the war in the Pacific began with the entry of the Western Here following Japan's attack against Pearl Harbor. Some early jet fighters required 50 man-hours of work by a ground crew for every hour the aircraft was in the air; later models substantially reduced this to allow faster turn-around times and more sorties in a day. British and German aircraft tended to https://hunterlist.co/serien-stream-to-legal/kino-center-leer.php a mix Gravity (Film) machine guns and autocannon, the latter firing explosive projectiles. Navybut it was canceled. In the s, radar was fitted to day fighters, since Amazon Video De to ever increasing air-to-air weapon ranges, pilots could no Kabel Deutschland see far enough ahead to prepare for the opposition. From modified variants of the Royal Aircraft Factory B. Greenwood Publishing Click.

The Fighters Filme wie The Fighters

Amber Heard. Rebirth - Rache stirbt nie. Lauren Leech. Side FX. Kommentare zu The Fighters werden geladen Click die Bilder sprechen eine andere Sprache.

5 comments

Hinterlasse eine Antwort

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *